Glossary

 

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    The Islamic Charter on Family

     

    Glossary

    Al-'aaqilah

    The practice of obliging the male paternal relatives of a person who is convicted of accidental manslaughter to share in paying the blood money.

    Al-'awl:

    A way of proportionately reducing the share of all inheritors when the inheritors' shares exceed the actual number of shares.

    Fiqh

    The science of Islamic Jurisprudence.  This science covers all fields related to worship and transactions.  The word in its non-technical sense means "understanding."

    Fitr Zakaah

    Charity that is paid after the fasting of the month of Ramadan.

    Ghareeb hadith

    A hadith that is reported by only a very small number of narrators.

    Hadd

    A punishment that is specified in the Qur'an for a major crime such as murder, theft, or fornication.

    Hadith

    A prophetic tradition which reports a saying action or reaction of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him).

    Hasan hadith

    A good hadith with respect to the reliability of the transmission of the text, (not a judgment of the text itself).  This is considered the second degree of reliability, the first being "saheeh" (authentic).

    'Id al-Adha

    The Feast of Sacrifice that occurs on the tenth day of the month of pilgrimage.  On this day and the next three days one may slaughter his sacrifice or animal offering.

    'Id al-Fitr

    The Feast of Breaking the Fast which marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting.

    Ihsaan

    A high degree of faith.  The Prophet Muhammad (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) defined it as "Worshipping Allah as if you see Him, for even if you do not see Him, He sees you."

    Imaan

    Firm conviction and faith.

    Istikhlaaf

    Vicegerency -  This refers to the concept of Allah having designated a Caliph (khalifa) on Earth to look after and care for creation, using the available resources and wealth with wisdom for the benefit of all, rather than exploiting them

    Kalaalah

    (where there is no inheriting descendent or male inheriting ascendant). 

    Khul'a

    The arrangement in which the wife seeks divorce through making a deal with her husband, such as returning the dowry he paid her.

    Li'aan

    A procedure in which a husband who accuses his wife of adultery, without having witnesses swears four times to Allah that he is telling the truth, and the fifth time that he deserves Allah's wrath if he is telling a lie.  The wife then may, if she claims innocence, swear four times that he is telling a lie, and the firth time that she deserves Allah's wrath if he is telling the truth.

    Mahram:

    One's relatives to whom marriage is forbidden due to the proximity of ties of consanguinity, affinity, or nursing.

    Al-masalih

    al-mursalah

    Rulings based on public interest in the absence of a legislative source from the Qur'an or Sunnah.

    Mujtahid   

    A jurist who forms independent decisions in legal or theological matters, based on the interpretation and application of the main principles of derivation of Islamic law.

    Mukallaf

    A person who meets the conditions to be held liable for fulfilling the requirements of Shari'ah. 

    Mursal hadith

    A hadith that is attributed to the Prophet (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) by a second generation narrator without mentioning the name of the first generation narrator (the companion) from whom he heard it.

    Al-mut`ah

    A conciliatory gift given by the man to the wife if he divorces her in order to lessen the resulting pain and hardship.

    Qiwaamah

    Being in charge of and responsible for supporting the family.

    Sadd adh-dharaa'i'

    Closing the door against the possibility of committing illegal things. Sometimes, a permissible act may be forbidden by the law, because it leads or may most probably lead to illegal actions.

    Saheeh hadith

    An authentic hadith.

    Siwaak

    A small branch of a tree used to clean the teeth.

    Takaaful

    Solidarity;

    Takhaaruj:.

    The agreement between heirs when one of them gives up his share of the inheritance in exchange for its value or for something else.

    Walaa'

    A bond between two people, such as the bond of affiliation that is created by freeing a slave.  This bond involves rights and obligations on each party.  The rights include that the person who freed the slave has the right to inherit from the freed slave if he does not have any other inheritors.

    Waqf

    Allocating part of one's possession as an endowment for a specific righteous purpose; it should not be sold or disposed of except under the conditions stipulated by the establisher of the endowment, or with the aim or perpetuating it.

     
     

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